Air conditioners typically cool air through a process that replaces hot air in a room with cooler air that has passed through the refrigeration cycle. The refrigerant absorbs and removes heat from the space and expels it outside.
- Split system: The cooling unit is installed outside with the heated unit (fans) mounted inside. A split system air conditioner is suited to cooling one or more adjoining rooms.
- Inverter system: Constantly alters fan and motor speeds. This enables faster cooling of a room, and the inverter air conditioner does not have to switch itself on and off to maintain a constant temperature.
- Portable air conditioner: Small, light and mobile, the portable air conditioner is movable from room to room. Portable units have a lower power output (than a split system), and suited to smaller spaces such as apartments and where permenant installation is not permitted.
It is important to match the air conditioning unit to the size of the room it is cooling. The bigger the room, the more cooling capacity and power input required. Under-powered air conditioners will have to work harder, wasting energy.
Energy efficiency for air conditioners is measured by capacity output in relation to power input. The ratio of power to cooling and heating capacity to achieve determines the energy efficiency of the system. Often energy efficiency decreases between similar models as cooling capacity increases. The compact size of air conditioning units come at the cost of energy efficiency.
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